What Is ASTM E84?

- Mar 09, 2020-

ASTM E84 is the united-states Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.  

Significance and Use

ASTM E84 test method is intended to provide only comparative measurements of surface flame spread and smoke density measurements under the specific fire exposure conditions. Flame spread is the development of the flame on the surface, it is related to a fire near combustible Ershi believed the spread of fire. Flame propagation properties of the tunnel method and often radiation plate test.


1) This fire-test-response standard for the comparative surface burning behavior of building materials is applicable to exposed surfaces such as walls and ceilings. The test is conducted with the specimen in the ceiling position with the surface to be evaluated exposed face down to the ignition source. The material, product, or assembly shall be capable of being mounted in the test position during the test. Thus, the specimen shall either be self-supporting by its own structural quality, held in place by added supports along the test surface, or secured from the backside.

2) The purpose of this test method is to determine the relative burning behavior of the material by observing the flame spread along with the specimen. Flame spread and smoke-developed index are reported. However, there is not necessarily a relationship between these two measurements.

3) The use of supporting materials on the underside of the test specimen has the ability to lower the flame spread index from those which might be obtained if the specimen could be tested without such support. These test results do not necessarily relate to indices obtained by testing materials without such support.

4) Testing of materials that melt, drip, or delaminate to such a degree that the continuity of the flame front is destroyed, results in low flame spread indices that do not relate directly to indices obtained by testing materials that remain in place.

Test method of ASTM E84-Steiner Tunnel Test (Flame Spread Test)

The tunnel test is to test the surface burning characteristics of materials, asbestos and untreated red oak plywood compared. 0 levels of asbestos plywood, 100 level for the untreated red oak flooring. In this test, the smoke produced during combustion also is measured and divided into the same class. This level within 10 minutes in the beginning, was determined. However, the difference is coated with fire, building specifications to extend the test time from 10 minutes to 30 minutes, the burner flame propagation can not exceed 10 1 / 2 feet and requires no further signs of burning.

Determination of flame Spread Index (FSI)

Determination of the material with the tunnel of FSI between the value of between 0 to 200, FSI smaller the value of the material, the smaller the risk of fire. High-rise buildings and the corridor should be used FSI <25 materials, 25 <FSI <100 can only be used for fire protection material is not a very demanding place, and FSI> 100 of the material does not meet flame retardant requirements.

The Life Safety Code and Section 803.1 of the International Building Code limit finish for interior walls and ceilings to materials in three classes (A, B, or C, with A being the lowest flame spread and C being the highest) and gives greater restrictions for certain rooms:

ClassFlame Spread Index

In order to meet classification in any of the three categories, the smoke-developed index (SDI) cannot exceed 450.